Judith out and about: Munich day 2

When I look back, I wonder: did I really see all this in one day?  Two museums with over a thousand works of art and a palace with ten courtyards and one-hundred-thirty rooms?  My feet say “Yes” and my bladder says “Hell, yes!”  Oh, what I do for Judith.

The day began at Alte Pinakothek, which brings together art from the Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo periods. Unfortunately, there is no photography allowed, so I have no record of my visit.  But I did have the opportunity to view Simon Vouet’s “Judith with the Head of Holofernes” – one of four that he painted.  She did seem to be just as relaxed as I imagined in Judith and Belle Watling.

Simon Vouet, "Judith with the Head of Holofernes," 1615-27, oil on canvas, 96.8 x 73.3 cm, Old Pinakothek of Munich, Munich, Germany

Simon Vouet, “Judith with the Head of Holofernes,” 1615-27, oil on canvas, 96.8 x 73.3 cm, Old Pinakothek of Munich, Munich, Germany


Around the corner is Neue Pinakothek, the first public museum in Europe dedicated to contemporary art ranging from Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Art Deco, and Impressionism.  My goal was “Judith”  by August Riedel, and the first thing to note: this painting is so much more beautiful than an image on the internet can ever convey.  The color, the detail, the subtle expression on her face – it has to be seen in person. And it is the size of real life.

August Riedel (1802–1883), “Judith,” 1840, Oil on canvas, 131 x 96 cm, Neue Pinakothek, Munich, Germany


The color and texture of the fabric give the impression it could be touched. No wonder I titled the previous post on this artwork Judith gets real.

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August Riedel (1802–1883), detail of “Judith,” 1840, Oil on canvas, 131 x 96 cm, Neue Pinakothek, Munich, Germany


Of course, there is so much more than Judith in this collection and I am glad to have the excuse to roam.  Van Gogh, Gauguin, Monet, Klimt all on crisp,clean well-lit display. And then this surprize:

Gabriel von Max (1840-1915), "Monkeys as Judges of Art," 1889

Gabriel von Max (1840-1915), “Monkeys as Judges of Art,” 1889, Oil on canvas, 84.5 x 107.5 cm, Neue Pinakothek, Munich, Germany


As I learned, Gabriel Max was also interested in anthropological studies and surrounded himself with a family of monkeys, which he painted often.  I wonder what the art critics really thought?

Almost dead center of the city is Munich Residenz, the former royal residence of the Bavarian monarchs and largest city palace in Germany.  In one of the ten courtyards, I stopped for a late lunch before entering the galleries.  Although the first buildings at this site were erected in 1385, alterations were made up until King Ludwig III of Bavaria occupied the palace shortly before the revolution of 1918.  It was his father, King Ludwig II of Bavaria – builder of Neuschwanstein and Linderhof castles – who commissioned the elaborate (but leaky) Winter Garden on the roof of the Festsaalbau. A brief tribute to the Swan King seemed appropriate before renewing the search for Judith.

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Swan King Ludwig II of Bavaria (1864-1886), Munich Residenz, Munich, Germany


Within the vast halls of the residence, there are two Judiths to be found with the help of a detailed map. The most amazing room in the residence is the Antiquarium (Room 7), which at 66 meters (216.5 feet) is the largest and most lavish Renaissance hall north of the Alps.  It has to be seen to be believed for immensity and elaborateness of the decoration.  But alas, no Judith.

Onward to the Imperial Hall (Room 111), which in the 17th century was the largest and most important room for festivities and ceremonies.  The theme of the imagery is “princely rule based on reason and virtue,” depicted in heroic figures from classical antiquity and the Old Testament as examples of virtuous behavior. So of course, this is where we find Judith.

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Imperial Hall (Room 111), Munich Residenz, Munich, Germany

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Tapestries and “Judith,” Imperial Hall (Room 111), Munich Residenz, Munich, Germany

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unknown artist, “Judith,” 17th century, Imperial Hall (Room 111), Munich Residenz, Munich, Germany


If I can read the Latin inscription correctly, it says “Hoc ducis assirii caput est Juditha recidit. Sobria mens vincit, ebria victa iacet” – which translates roughly to “This is the head of the Assyrian general Judith cut off.  A sober mind overcomes drunken lies.”  An appropriate reminder before entering any occasion serving alcohol – or falsehoods. Until a latin scholar provides a better translation, in which case I may still prefer my own.

The Green Gallery (Room 58) is next, another setting for splendid festivities but was also a picture and mirror gallery.

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Green Gallery (Room 58) , Munich Residenz, Munich, Germany

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“Judith and Holofernes” above door in Green Gallery (Room 58) , Munich Residenz, Munich, Germany

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follower of Caravaggio, “Judith and Holofernes,” 17th century, Green Gallery (Room 58), Munich Residenz, Munich, Germany


And it was about the time I found the last Judith in the deepest area of the residence that I realized: they had no accessible indoor plumbing due to renovations and the nearest restroom was sixty galleries away.

Sixty galleries.

No, I did not stop to take pictures. Only this one as a reminder: always visit the bathroom before entering a royal palace – unless you happen to be royal and have a valet with a chamberpot.

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Remember what you mother said: Use the bathroom before car trips … and tours of royal palaces.

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Posted by on May 7, 2016 in Exploring



Judith out and about: Munich day 1

A lovely train ride north from Verona brings me to Munich and more art devoted to Judith. I started at the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum (Bavarian National Museum) because, well, it is one of the most important museums of decorative arts in Europe.  In addition, it is one of the largest art museums in Germany – although frankly I was focused and skipped a few centuries.

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Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich, Germany


The goal was Conrad Meit’s diminutive Judith, discussed in Judith is exposed.  In addition to being petite, she is a study in contrasts – virtuous and voluptuous, well-coiffed and unclothed, feminine pose and ferocious sword, demote and deadly.  Yes, Meit captured a lot of meaning in a relatively small statuette.

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Conrad Meit (1480-1550), “Judith,” 1510-15,, Painted marble, height: 30 cm, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich, Germany


The second stop for the day was Villa Stuck.  I knew I was taking a chance that “Judith and Holofernes” (1927) would not be in the house … and it was not.  But the visit to this museum was far from a waste of my time because the vision of Franz von Stuck (1863-1928) is fully on display.  Discussed in Judith and Lili, Von Stuck had a non-traditional perspective on art.  He co-founded the Munich Secession to transform ideas of what constitutes art and embarked on making art part of ordinary life – in everything from architecture to furniture.  Villa Stuck is the manifestation of this approach, in which you see Von Stuck/s art in the interior design and furnishings in addition to his paintings.

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Villa Stuck, Munich, Germany


So in the place of Judith, the Villa showcases one of Von Stuck’s first artworks to ignite attention to his erotic style: The Sin (Die Sünde), 1893.  In fact, it is placed over the infamous Sin Altar designed by Von Stuck – which is adorned by statuettes from antiquity and nautilus shells rather than items associated with sin.

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Villa Stuck, Munich, Germany

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Franz von Stuck (1863-1928), “The Sin,” 1893, oil on canvas, 90.2 x 53.3 cm, Villa Stuck, Munich, Germany


At least it’s not that attention whore, Salome.

For a scholarly video on The Sin (Die Sünde) that is also fairly provocative, visit Khan Academy: Symbolism & Art Nouveau – Stuck, The Sin.

And I almost forgot: there was a lovely exhibit about Hans Christiansen on the third floor.  He was also one of the proponents of German Jugendstil but his style was much lighter, his pallet much brighter and his subjects tended to focus on nature mores than heighten sexuality. At least that was the impression of this exhibit that also featured snippets about his successful family life.  No murderous heroines included.

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Posted by on May 6, 2016 in Exploring



Judith out and about: Verona

Many lovers flock to Verona to celebrate Shakespeare’s romantic tale of Romeo and Juliette. Little do they know that the Castelvecchio Museum of Verona also houses paintings of Judith – a lover of another sort.

Actually, Verona is home to many interesting historic points of interest as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and Castelvecchio is not even the most significant (that honor goes to the Roman amphitheatre, Piazza Bra, Ponte di Pietra, Arco dei Gavi, Porta Borsari and numerous Medieval structures).  But on the trail of Judith, the museum provides two fine examples of the story of Holofernes fate.

First from Judith gets a giggle, Pietro Ricchi’s tenebrism on display as Judith prepares for a delighted exit from the tent with the Head of Holofernes.  In detail, she really looks quite pleased with herself and a little … provocative.

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Pietro Ricchi (Lucchese) (1606 c.-1675), “Judith with the head of Holofernes,” Oil on canvas, 83 x 99 cm, Museo di Castelvecchio, Verona, Italy

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Pietro Ricchi (Lucchese) (1606 c.-1675), detail “Judith with the head of Holofernes,” Oil on canvas, 83 x 99 cm, Museo di Castelvecchio, Verona, Italy

The second telling of the tale is by Giovanni Giuseppe dal Sole.  Or maybe Gian Gioseffo dal Sole, depending on how his name is spelled that day. When I wrote Judith touched by an angel, I had only a small image of the painting to view.  As you can see, it is actually life-sized!  So I could not help but try to insert myself into this moment in art history.  At least I did not try the protagonist’s role.

dal SoleGiovanni Giuseppe/Gioseffo (1654-1719) Judith inspired by the angel 1697 Oil on canvas 210 x 290 cm Museo di Castelvecchio Verona IT

Giovanni Giuseppe dal Sole (1654-1719), “Judith inspired by the angel,” 1697, Oil on canvas, 210 x 290 cm, Museo di Castelvecchio, Verona, Italy

Giovanni Giuseppe dal Sole (1654-1719), "Judith inspired by the angel," 1697, Oil on canvas, 210 x 290 cm, Museo di Castelvecchio, Verona, Italy

Giovanni Giuseppe dal Sole (1654-1719), “Judith inspired by the angel,” 1697, Oil on canvas, 210 x 290 cm, Museo di Castelvecchio, Verona, Italy

It helps to meet a professional photographer along the way.

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Posted by on May 5, 2016 in Exploring



Judith out and about: Milan day 3

Here is the worst part about procrastinating: you lose things in the interim. Just as I may have lost the photographs of one of the BEST mornings of my life.  Losing the photographic record may be one of the worst.

The story begins with Judith wanders the streets – a post detailing the street art of Christian Guémy, aka C215.  Through persistence and internet sleuthing, I found the location in an industrial section of Milan.  So on a quiet Sunday morning – my last day in the city – I braved the subway system to look for the street. By an amazing coincidence, the location was just one block from the station exit in Isola!  As I stood there taking pictures, a group of segway tourists drove by – American segway tourists (because who else is dorky enough to ride a segway)!  Since I was in the middle of the street anyway, I took a chance and asked one of the group to take my picture in front of the artwork.

And now – a year later – I can’t find it.  Would St. Anthony give me a little assistance even now?

HOLY CRAP the answer is yes!! Because here are the photographs for which I was searching!

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Via Gaetano do Castillia in Isola, Milan, Italy

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Via Gaetano do Castillia in Isola, Milan, Italy

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Via Gaetano do Castillia in Isola, Milan, Italy

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Christian Gummy (C215) (1973- ), “Judith et Olofernes,” 2010, Stencil work, Spray paint on metal, Via Gaetano do Castillia in Isola, Milan, Italy

That guy on the Segway was actually very talented for balancing on a platform, operating an iPhone, and confronting a crazy woman in the middle of the street.  Wouldn’t you agree?

But now for something completely different – and more surprises.

The next stop: La Scala.  Yes, La Scala – as in  the official name Teatro all Scala, the most famous opera house in the world.  Let me be honest right here:  I know next to nothing about opera, not even sure I enjoy opera although I do acknowledge the immense talent and rich history of the art form. Maybe if I learned Italian (or German) I would LOVE opera, but at this moment I am a Philistine about it. But even a Philistine knows that La Scala has hosted many of the finest singers in the world during the past 200 years. And I can certainly manage going through the Museum of Teatro alla Scala. 

And in the very first room of the museum: Judith on the lid of a pianoforte. Although the portrait to the right looks none-to-happy about her neighbor.

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Judith Returning with the Head of Holofernes, spinet lid, Museum of Teatro alla Scala, Milan, Italy

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Giving Judith the stink eye, Museum of Teatro alla Scala, Milan, Italy

The spinet

In the remaining rooms of the museum are numerous artworks devoted to another Judith – Giuditta Angiola Maria Constanza Pasta, perhaps the greatest of opera singers and certainly one of the most famous attrice cantante (singer actresses) in history. She was discussed briefly in Now for something completely different (LXIV).

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Gioacchino Seranglei (1768-1852) “Portrait of the singer, Giuditta Pasta,” oil on wood, Museum of Teatro alla Scala, Milan, Italy

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Karl Brullow (1799-1852), “Portrait of the singer Giuditta Pasta,” oil on canvas, Museum of Teatro alla Scala, Milan, Italy


Between 1824 and 1837, Pasta sang regularly in London, Paris, Milan and Naples. From 1830-31 in Milan, three roles were written specifically for her voice and became her major successes: Donizetti’s Anna Bolena given at the Teatro Carcano, Amina in Bellini’s La sonnambula and his Norma. Her performance also contributed to the success of La Scala, and she is appropriately immortalized in its halls.


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Borcacchi, “The singer Giuditta Pasta,” watercolor on card, Museum of Teatro alla Scala, Milan, Italy

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Giovanni Battista Comolli (1775-1831), bust of Giuditta Pasta, marble, Museum of Teatro alla Scala, Milan, Italy

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Posted by on May 4, 2016 in No category



Judith out and about: Milan day 2

The second day in Milan contained two destinations:  Pinacoteca Ambrosian and Pinacoteca del Castello Sforzesco. Oh joy! And two entirely different experiences.

The Pinacoteca Ambrosian is off the beaten path – small and quiet and intense.  The Pinacoteca del Castello Sforzesco IS the Beaten Path – large and loud and a kaleidoscope of activity.

So why these two extremes? Think library versus castle – and there lies the difference.

The Pinacoteca Ambrosian (aka Ambrosian art gallery) is part of the Biblioteca Ambrosian – a historic library founded by Cardinal Federico Borromeo (1564–1631), who searched Western Europe, Greece, and Syria for books and manuscripts.  Perhaps the most exciting acquisition was twelve manuscripts of Leonardo DaVinci, including the Codex Atlantic’s – covering subjects from mechanics to hydraulics, from sketches for paintings to mathematics and astronomy, from philosophical meditations to fables, including curious inventions such as parachutes, war machineries and hydraulic pumps – all written in DaVinci’s curious code. But I was not there for DaVinci – no, it is always about Judith.  And the Pinacoteca Ambrosian contains two:  Andrea Fabrizi Parmigiana’s Judith with the Head of Holofernes,16th century (from Judith in a stew) and Giuseppe Vermiglio’s Judith and Holofernes, 1623-25 (from Judith is cleansed).  Alas, no cameras allowed, but both paintings are much more engaging than their photographs.

Biblioteca Ambrosian, Milan, Italy

Biblioteca Ambrosian, Milan, Italy


The path to the Pinacoteca del Castello Sforzesco was no less historic but more well-known.  Castello Sforzesco (aka Sforza Castle) was built in the 15th century by Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, on the foundation of a 14th-century fort. The most prolific owner was Ludovico Sforza (1452-1508), the patron of many artists including Leonardo DaVinci and the man who commissioned The Last Supper – as well as Lady with an Ermine to portray his mistress, Cecilia Gallerani.  My goal here was Giulio Cesare Procaccini’s “Judith and Holofernes” (c.1620) – a dramatic, Mannerist depiction of the psychological struggle within Judith and physical struggle between Judith and her prey. This time: photography is allowed – but it does not do the painting justice.

ProcacciniGiulio Cesare (1547 c.-1626 c.) Judith and Holofernes (3) 1620 c. Oil on canvas 182 x 140 cm Pinacoteca del Castello Sforzesco, Room XXVI

Giulio Cesare Procaccini (1547 c.-1626 c.), Judith and Holofernes (3), c. 1620, Oil on canvas, 182 x 140 cm, Pinacoteca del Castello Sforzesco, Milan, Italy


But the ultimate prize of Castello Sforzescoi is Michelangelo’s last incomplete work, the  Pietà Rondanini

the  Pietà is a meditation on death and the salvation of the soul. In this work the sculptor discards the perfection of the human body and its heroic beauty and transforms the dead Christ into an emblem of suffering. The physical arrangement of Mary and Jesus, the mother’s head above that of the son, is suggestive of various moments of the life of Christ: the deposition from the cross; the burial and even the resurrection: in the dissolution of Christ’s body in the mother’s embrace. Left incomplete due to the death of Michelangelo, the Pietà is a testament to the last period of the great master’s creative genius. (1)

Exhibited alone in a quiet room secluded from everything else, there is a sense of being in a chapel where viewing the sculpture is an act of worship. The unfinished state of the work is raw, and the feeling of Mary’s grief is visceral as she supports the body of her crucified son. For a Michelangelo scholar, I imagine this sculpture provides insights in how he worked. But to my untrained eye, it evokes thoughts about what might have been – had he lived, had it been finished.  Then again – perhaps it is just as it was meant to be to provoke our thoughts.

Sforzesco-Pieta-Rondanini-01 Sforzesco-Pieta-Rondanini-02


(1) The  Pietà Rondinini, Castello Sfornisco website


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Posted by on May 3, 2016 in Exploring



Judith out and about: Milan day 1

The surprises continue!

I made it to Milan in time to meet our guide and make our appointment to view DaVinci’s Last Supper in the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie. Without going into detail, the viewing was a once-in-a-lifetime experience enhanced by having a knowledgeable guide.  Even those who are not especially interested in art cannot help but be impressed with the magnitude and history of the fresco – despite the slow deterioration. See it before it is gone!

But enough about one of the world’s most famous works of art.  Let’s get back to Judith – and me.

The next stop was the Duomo di Milano – the 5th-largest church in the world and the largest in Italy. As the guide was describing the massive interior with twenty soaring stained glass windows (each with ay least twenty panels), I asked if he knew which window contained the work of Giuseppe Arcimboldo.  Immediately after he looked aghast, explained that there were at least four-hundred panels in the 130,000 sq ft interior and it would be impossible to locate one specifically – I turned to my right and exclaimed “Oh, there it is!”

And there it was. The magnificent stained glass work of Giuseppe Arcimboldo, depicting Judith in a tiny panel in a massive window.

Giusppe Arcimbolodo, stained glass windows, 1596, Duomo, Milan, Italy

Giusppe Arcimbolodo, stained glass windows, 1556, Duomo, Milan, Italy

No seriously, she is in the upper tight hand corner of my blurry photograph.  But slightly turned around. If you don’t believe me, check out Judith and the Vegetarian.


Giuseppe Arcimboldo, “Judith,” 1556, stained glass, Duomo, Milan, Ital


In the Museo del Duomo (Duomo Museum), I also found an over-door panel and its model that I had not seen or heard about before.  The model is by Giovanni Battista Crespi (called Il Cerano), who was an Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the early Baroque period.  He was distinguished enough to be appointed head of the Academia Ambrosian – but more about that later.

The sketch for the panel depicts Judith in the middle of beheading Holofernes, who appears to be asleep, under the watchful eye of the maid. The accompanying model by Gaspare Vismara adds more than just physical dimension to the work but also shows the power of the women in body and character. Plus Judith’s coiffure is embellished with a jaunty feather – who wouldn’t enjoy that!

Giovanni Battista Crespi (Il Cerano) (1573-1632), "Judith and Holofernes" monochrome for over-door panel, 1628-29, tempera on canvas, Museo del Duomo, Milan, Italy

Giovanni Battista Crespi (Il Cerano) (1573-1632), “Judith and Holofernes” monochrome for over-door panel, 1628-29, tempera on canvas, Museo del Duomo, Milan, Italy

Gaspare Vismara , "Judith and Holofernes" model for over-door panel, 1629, terracotta, Museo del Duomo, Milan, Italy

Gaspare Vismara , “Judith and Holofernes” model for over-door panel, 1629, terracotta, Museo del Duomo, Milan, Italy


After the guide dispensed us at our hotel, I set off on my own with two destinations to find artworks I have not discussed before.  Basilica of San Simpliciano is a church in the center of Milan, , the second oldest in the form of a Latin cross dating from about 600 AD.  My reason to visit was a fresco of Judith by an unknown artist, and yes – it is there in the transept to the right of the main altar. But next time I will bring a flash light because this church is really dark. Really dark.

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Basilica of San Simpliciano, Milan, Italy

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Center aisle and altar, Basilica of San Simpliciano, Milan, Italy

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unknown artist, “Judith holding Holofernes’ head,” 19th century, fresco, right transept of Basilica of San Simpliciano, Milan, Italy


The second destination was Santa Maria del Carmine, a “newer” church dating from the 14th century with the current structure rebuilt in 1446.  That’s three-hundred and thirty years before the Declaration of Independence if you are counting in terms of American history, before Columbus even stepped foot on Hispaniola. In this location is a painting by Camillo Procaccini, who came from family of painters in the region and who contributed eight paintings in total for this chapel – all relating to the Virgin Mary.  In this case, the story of Judith is included as a predecessor to the virtue of the Madonna.  This painting is dated about 1616 – which still makes it older than American independence and contemporary with Jamestown, Virginia when it was a collection of mud huts.

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Santa Maria del Carmine, Milan, Italy

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Madonna del Carmine chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Milan, Italy

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Camilla Procaccini (1551 –1629), “Judith and Holofernes,” 1616-19, Oil on canvas, Madonna del Carmine chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Milan, IT


And that seems like quite enough for one day. But much more to explore tomorrow.


Posted by on May 2, 2016 in Exploring


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Judith out and about: Lovere

Let’s just say after Bergamo: there were problems. Thankfully, they did not involve seeing Judith.

The object of traveling by bus about 1 1/2 hours north from Bergamo was to view artwork in the L’Accademia Tadini.  The museum is in the residence of Count Luigi Tadini, an avid art collector who built the current structure in in the 1820’s.  It is near the center of the picturesque town of Lovere on the shores of Lake Iseo.


Lovere, Italy – on the shores of Lake Iseo


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L’Accademia Tapini, Lovere, Italy

The staff at the museum was very warm and friendly, but only one spoke English and I do not speak Italian (sadly).  They were happy to let me roam and take pictures as much as I wanted.  And there were more Judith’s than I expected!  The object of my visit was a painting by Bernardino Fusari – a little known painter from Crema in the late 17th century. (discussed in Judith ’twas brillig … because, well, Jabberwockys can be anywhere and surprised you at anytime.)

Bernardino Fusari, "Judith and Holofernes," 17th century, Oil on canvas, 118 x189 cm, Accademia di Belle Arti Tadini, Lovere, Italy

Bernardino Fusari, “Judith and Holofernes,” 17th century, Oil on canvas, 118 x189 cm, Accademia di Belle Arti Tadini, Lovere, Italy


Despite my poor photography, she is a very competent Judith in a lovely pink gown decorated with brooches and medalions – caught in an upswing to continue severing Holofernes’ neck.  Other than the relative lack of blood in the scene, the remarkable aspect of this painting is the posture of the maid.  On the one hand, it is an unusual and mysterious position for the maid to be fully turned to the opening of the tent, on the alert for soldiers as well as looking back toward Bethulia.  On the other hand, Fusari did himself the favor of not having the responsibility to paint another face by turning her away. We will probably never know which goal was his primary motivation, but the positioning does add tension and suspense to the scene.

I was quite happy with viewing this painting up close until … I discovered one disappointing fact:  Fusari also painted Salome … and she is hanging in the same gallery with Judith.

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<sigh> Will Judith never be able to escape the inevitable comparisons with that minx?

My disappointment was quickly overcome by discovering a Judith I had not expected to see – and who was without an accompanying Salome.  Francesco Lorenzi (1723-1787) was an Italian painter of the late Baroque period who studied in Venice under Giovanni Battista Tiepolo – one of the traditional great Old Masters of that period.  His Judith appears somewhat penitent regarding her murderous deed or maybe she is just tired.  That’s a lot of responsibility, getting dressed up AND bi-secting a head and neck. Not something a girl does every day.

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Lorenzi, Francesco (1723-1787), Judith with the head of Holofernes, oil on canvas, Accademia di Belle Arti Tadini, Lovere, Italy


But this story would not be complete if I did not mention the kindness of Andrea Petteni, from the staff of L’Academia Tadin, who helped me out of a terrible jam when bus service was suspended due to an accident.  Without his assistance, I would have missed the train from Bergamo to Milan – and then missed my 8:30am appointment to see DaVinci’s Last Supper.  I am indebted and will never forget his willingness to aid a helpless stranger. Vi ringrazio per sempre.

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Posted by on May 1, 2016 in Exploring


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