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Judith and the Bard

In medieval British culture, a bard was a professional poet, employed by a patron, such as a monarch or nobleman, to commemorate the patron’s ancestors and to praise the patron’s own activities.  From frequent use in Romanticism, ‘The Bard’ became a title to various poets – most notably across time, ‘The Bard of Avon,’ ‘The Immortal Bard’ or simply ‘The Bard’ to an anglophile is William Shakespeare.

The town of Stratford-upon-Avon has been virtually stopped in time to honor England’s most famous poet and playwright.  The Shakespeare Birthplace Trust (SBT) is the oldest conservation society in Britain and considered the most significant Shakespeare charity in the world.  The mission of SBT is to promote the appreciation and study of William Shakespeare’s works, and to advance of Shakespearian knowledge by maintaining and preserving the Shakespeare Birthplace properties, a museum, library of books, manuscripts, records of historic interest, pictures, photographs and objects of antiquity associated with the life and times of William Shakespeare.  In fulfillment of that mission, SBT acquired this panel painting in 2014 as a representation of popular art during Shakespeare’s time.

 

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Unknown artist, “Judith beheading Holofernes,” c. 1575, oil on panel, Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK

 

The story of Judith and Holofernes was well known in Shakespeare’s day and it was a popular subject for painters in the 16th and 17th centuries. This panel was painted by an unknown Northern European artist and has been dated to about 1575… It is interesting to wonder whether there is a connection between the Biblical character of Judith and the name chosen by Shakespeare for his second daughter. (1)

I discussed his daughter Judith way-back-when in a post – although I found no significant connection to the biblical Judith.  Just a nice name.

But the reason that posting this painting today is important is not that it was acquired a year ago. No, the importance is … seven weeks from today I will be able to view this for myself at the Shakespeare Birthplace!  So in between the plays and the pubs and the puddings, if it is on display, I can check out this Judith with my own eyes!!

Now excuse me while I go to throw salt over my shoulder and spit three times while twirling around in order not to jinx the trip.

 

(1) Finding Shakespeare, New Acquisition: Judith and Holofernes, posted on February 21st, 2014 by Paul Taylor

 
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Posted by on February 28, 2015 in Gory

 

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Judith, meet Bacchus

There is more here than meets the eye. More pursuit of freedom and ecstasy.

Judith () Alexis Grimou

Alexis Grimou (1678-1733), “Judith with the Head of Holofernes,” oil on canvas, 88 x 72 cm, Museum of King John III’s Palace at Wilanów, Warsaw, PL

 

This is a Judith by Alexis Grimou, a French painter who taught himself to paint by copying works of Van Dyck and Rembrandt.  According the to font of all knowledge, Wikipedia: “He painted mainly spirited portraits or portrait scenes, such as women singing and playing musical instruments. He was admitted to the Academy of Paris in 1705, but resigned complaining about the mediocrity of his peers.”  I imagine that observation made him a less-than-popular-guy.  Actually the French Wikipedia says “but his conduct, together with the insolence did off the list in 1709.”  Yes, a slightly different story.  It seems the truth is somewhere in between according to another source: “Although instructed by the Académie to paint as his morceaux de réception portraits of the sculptor Jean Raon (1630-1707) and the painter Antoine Coypel, he failed to present either picture and in 1709 the agrément was annulled.”

But he seems to have enjoyed himself in the ensuing years, as revealed in his self-portraits.  His style is described as “earthy” and harkens back to the Dutch Golden Age for portraits that defied the ascendent French classicism of the Academy.  Amidst this freedom of style, it is curious that he would have selected Judith as a theme – so it is likely this is a commissioned portrait in which the client selected Judith as a historical character to portray.  However, she looks a little uncomfortable with her role – too bad she did not join in the drinking.

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Alexis Grimou (1680-1733), “Toper,” Oil on canvas. 101 x 81 cm, Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, Massachusettes, USA

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Alexis Grimou (1680-1733), “Toper,” Oil on canvas. 116.5 x 89.5 cm, National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

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Alexis Grimou (1680-1733), “Bacchus Self-Portrait,” 1728, Oil on canvas, 101 × 81 cm, Musée Magnin, Dijon, FR

 

 

 
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Posted by on February 27, 2015 in Cacciatore

 

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Judith hangs with Jael

Serial posting.  Why didn’t I think of that before?

Yesterday began with trying to unravel the mystery of an unidentified tapestry.  Which led to the history and geography of tapestries.  Which led to the connection to four other tapestries with Judith as the subject. Which today leads to the south of France … but not the sandy, sunny south.  The mountainous, snowy south.

In the heart of the Pays d’Asse is the ancient city of Senez, located in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence.  The present Romanesque church dates 1176 but was nearly destroyed in the French Wars of Religion (1562–98).  It was rebuilt in 1750, to add an episcopal palace next to the cathedral – and after completion of the restoration Monseigneur de Ruffo Bonneval (bishop of Senez 1783-1784) presented eight tapestries in celebration.  All but one were Aubusson tapestries in wool and silk,  representing different biblical scenes from the Old Testament – among them Judith holding a sword in one hand (the head of Holofernes in the other) and Jael a hammer in hand.  What a pair!

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Unknown artist, “Judith holding the head of Holofernes.” Aubusson tapestry: Wool, Silk; Tapestry Weave, Cathedral of Senez, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, FR

 

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Unknown artist, “Jael holding a hammer.” Aubusson tapestry: Wool, Silk; Tapestry Weave, Cathedral of Senez, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, FR

 

 

… which leads me to wonder:  how many grooms had second thoughts about their weddings when they stood before these wall hangings in the cathedral?

 

(1) L’inventaire Général du Patrimoine Culturel, Les objets mobiliers  les tentures: Les tapisseries des Flandres 

 

 
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Posted by on February 18, 2015 in Borderline Boring

 

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Judith unravels

Sometimes things just don’t work out the way you planned.

This lovely tapestry was supposed to be in the collection of the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Lille, France – but it is not there.  I am almost 100% sure it is not there because the France Ministry of Culture is meticulous about cataloging every work of art in collections of public and private museums of France in a central online database, Joconde – and this tapestry is not listed.

Judith (1600s) Flemish tapestry?

Unknown, “Judith holding the head of Holophernes,” 17th century, Flemish tapestry, ???; photo by Herve Lewandowski

Here are the pieces of the puzzle with which I have to work:

  • a tapestry
  • of Judith
  • in the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Lille OR in Lille OR in France
  • in a French museum thus in the online collection of Joconde
  • in a museum that is not in France
  • photographed by Herve Lewandowski

And thus far – it’s all a dead end.  Unless I get up the nerve to contact the photographer.

If I can not locate the tapestry, at least I can figure out the style and possible date, perhaps? To satisfy my insatiable curiosity?  The pieces of the puzzle with which I have to work on that task:

  • columns laden with fruit and tulips
  • center title in the upper border “Fortitudo Judith” – and then something I can’t read which is probably the name of the artist.

A little about the history of tapestries:

One of the most expensive and time-consuming crafts, tapestry-making only truly flourished in Europe from the Middle Ages onwards, at the hands of French and (later) Flemish weavers. This growth of tapestry art coincided with the era of Romanesque and Gothic art – both part of a religious revival, when architecture, sculpture and stained glass were also harnessed by the Church to illustrate Biblical stories to illiterate congregations.

The finest European tapestries are considered to have been made by the Gobelins Royal Factory in Paris, while major tapestry-making centres existed at ArrasTournaiBrusselsAubussonFellitin and in the Beauvais factory in Paris. (1)

Arras had been the center of activity, but after it was plundered by Louis XI in 1447,  tapestry makers fled to Flanders and created a new center of European woven textiles.  That would include the city of Lille, which identifies itself as “Flemish” in the geographical and historical sense.  The style of tapestries in Flanders went from “mille flour” in the 15th century to significant improvements in perspective and composition with a wide range of colors and highly ornate borders in the 16th century. The Flemish painter Bernard van Orley (1492-1541) was most well-known for combining late Gothic realism and Renaissance idealism with the art of the tapestry medium.

But this Judith does not resemble the borders created by Orley. Making comparisons across various tapestry designs, the fruity column design appears to  be the brain-child of either Michiel Coxie (1499–1592), Jacob Jordaens (1593–1678), or Justus van Egmont (1601–1674).  All three men were primarily painters, who moved to Brussels and designed various tapestries in their spare time.  Wait a minute … that sickly pink color reminds me of Joachim Wtewael (1566-1638) from Judith in Jeopardy.  So at least I am in the right time period.  And that will have to be enough … for now.

In the meantime, I did locate four other tapestries with Judith as the subject!!  Stay tuned tomorrow …

(1) Art Encyclopedia, Tapestry Art: Belgian Tapestries.  a must-read if you need a 101 on tapestries

 

 
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Posted by on February 17, 2015 in Borderline Boring

 

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Judith and the surname

This is the work of Gerrit Pietersz of the Dutch Golden Age – or is it?  Because what is art history without a little confusion.

Judith (1605) Gerrit Pietersz

Gerrit Pietersz (1566-1608), “Judith with the Head of Holofernes,” 1605, oil on canvas, 122.5 x 107.5 cm, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam, NL

 

Gerrit is known to be the brother of Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562-1621) – one of the first major keyboard composers of Europe who helped establish the north German organ tradition.  Their father, organist Pieter Swybbertszoon, died in 1573 – and their mother died in 1585 – leaving 23-year-old Jan Pieterszoon with responsibility for his younger brother and sister.  When Jan first began to publish music in 1594, he adopted his mother’s last name; “Sweelinck” for reasons that are unknown.  Because why would he not wish to be a Swybbertszoon?  For years, it was assumed that Gerrit Pietersz also took his mother’s name – and much of his work was attributed to “Gerrit Pietersz Sweelinck” (1) – when in fact, he never did use that surname and the correct name on his paintings should be Gerrit Pietersz.

Which brings into question the concept of surnames and its place in history.  The concept of a surname evolved from the medieval practice called a byname. In situations where more than one person had the same name, a byname would be used to distinguish the two – which happened more often as communities became more dispersed.  A byname was descriptive in order to facilitate the differentiation, and they were most commonly based on 1) occupation, 2) place name, 3) geographic feature, 4) familial relationship, 5) a personal characteristic, or 6) patronage.  Bynames or surnames were somewhat fluid in the Netherlands until 1811, when Napoleonic Code required registration of everything and thus standardization of names was required.  But in Jan and Gerrit’s lifetime of the late 16th and early 17th century , Jan went by Peterson (Pieterszoon) and Gerrit went by Peters (Pietersz) – both after their father Pieter. Until one day Jan got a wild hair and added his mother’s surname.

So now I am left to wonder:  what ever happened to the given name Swybbert and why did it decline in popularity?

And unfortunately that is the most interesting fact I could dig up on Gerrit Pietersz.   Looks like Judith may feel the same way.
(!) Haverkamp-Begemann, et al., Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-century European Drawings: Central Europe, The Robert Lehman Collection, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999, p 178.

 
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Posted by on January 29, 2015 in Cacciatore

 

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Judith in the stalls

Far away from here – west of Groningen, northwest of Drenthe and Overijssel, north of Flevoland, northeast of North Holland, and south of the North Sea – lies the Dutch province of Fryslân (formerly known as Friesland).   And in the province of Fryslân lies the town of Bolsward, where stands the Martinikerk – a medieval church originally dedicated to Saint Martin.  And in the Martinikerk there are superlative carved oak choir stalls that date from about 1450.

The names of the carvers who embellished the Mediaeval choirs have, as a rule, been lost; and fire and iconoclasm have destroyed most of their work.  Some few relics, however, of the splendor of wood-carving as it existed before the Renaissance are still to be found. For elaborate oak carving of the fifteenth century, it would be hard to find a more interesting example than the carved oak stalls in the great church of Bolsward (Broederkerk) in Holland. (1)

The stall that interests me is behind the pulpit …

Bolsward - Martinikerk 1466 - Main Nave : Choir - View ENE on Preekstoel : Pulpit 1662 - Gothic Choirbenches 1490

Martinikerk, Main Nave and Choir View ENE on Pulpit (1662), Bolsward, Fryslân, NL – photo by txllxt TxllxT, http://www.panoramio.com

 

… on the North side, on the second set of stalls, in the upper side panel …

Bolsward, Martinikerk, Choir View NE on Gothic Choirbenches detail 1490

Martinikerk, Choir View NE on Gothic Choirbenches (1490), Bolsward, Fryslân, NL – photo by txllxt TxllxT, http://www.panoramio.com

 

… because that is where you find Judith and her maid in the act of decapitating Holofernes in his tent, under the intricate walls of the city of Bethulia, while his army of 3 men eat and drink in the corner …

Judith (1450) Martinikerk, stalls, north side, bench end 2

Martinikerk, choir stalls, north side bench end, “Judith” (1450) – photo by groenling, http://www.flickr.com

 

… and then they cleverly slip out the back of the tent to place the severed head in a bag to return to the city.

Judith (1450) Martinikerk, stalls, north side, bench end - back 2

Martinikerk, choir stalls, north side bench end, “Judith” (1450) – photo by groenling, http://www.flickr.com

Judith (1450) Martinikerk, stalls, north side, bench end - back

Martinikerk, choir stalls, north side bench end – detail, “Judith” (1450) – photo by groenling, http://www.flickr.com

 

(1) Esther Singleton, Dutch and Flemish Furniture.  London: : Hodder and Stoughton, 1907.

 

Honestly, the main attraction in the Martinikerk in Bolsward is the massive pipe organ built in 1781 by Albertus Anthoni Hinsz – not Judith.  I know very little about pipe organs – except they are huge, produce visceral vibrations of sound, and are very difficult to play.  Apparently this area of the Netherlands is known as The Organ Garden of Europe.  The following video very nicely takes you on a tour of Bolsward and the interior of Martinikerk to the gentle sounds of the organ played by Kees Nottrot and Jan Mulder.

A tremendous thank you to the talented photography of groenling on www.flickr.com and  on http://www.panoramio.com  – and the video talents of SuperWillbee – whose contributions are the next best thing to travel.

 
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Posted by on January 22, 2015 in Glory

 

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Judith has it All In The Bag

I love shopping.  Well … I used to love shopping.  But I still love store displays. Especially when they are at the Louvre.

In the fall of 2014, Printemps department store in Paris used their Louvre location to support contemporary art through an exhibition of pop-art works that provide an artistic vision of the handbag.   Titled “POP THE BAG : Le Sac Dans Tous Ses États (It’s All In The Bag),” they invited six international artists to “interpret their vision of the handbag, a genuine iconic object and a timeless fashion accessory.” (1)

And OF COURSE, one of the artists choose the iconic theme of Judith – toting  Holofernes’ head in her messenger bag.

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Kordian Lewandowski , “Judith & Holofernes,” 2013, Polyurethane lacquer , 3D modeling, CNC machining, Statue : 200 x 105 x 73 cm, Podium : 100 x 75 x 75 cm, “Printemps Louvre, POP THE BAG : LE SAC DANS TOUS SES ÉTATS,” Paris, FR Exhibition until October 2014

 

Isn’t she DELICIOUS!!  Judith as a high-style Catwoman – in a bustiere, opera gloves and thigh-high boots.  Pussycat mask and kitten ears.  Giving us the sign to “Shhh” so not to give away the presence of Batman’s head in her handbag.

Judith (2013) Kordian Lewandowski 3

Kordian Lewandowski , “Judith & Holofernes,” 2013, Polyurethane lacquer , 3D modeling, CNC machining, Statue : 200 x 105 x 73 cm, Podium : 100 x 75 x 75 cm, “Printemps Louvre, POP THE BAG : LE SAC DANS TOUS SES ÉTATS,” Paris, FR Exhibition until October 2014

This Judith is absolutely fit to join the ranks of the most beautiful villains of all time – MEOW.

Eartha Kitt

Eartha Kitt

 

Julie Newmar

Julie Newmar

Lee Meriwether

Lee Meriwether

Michelle Pfeiffer

Michelle Pfeiffer

Halle Berry

Halle Berry

Anne Hathaway

Anne Hathaway

 

 
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Posted by on January 17, 2015 in Whorey

 

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